Cavity Walls In New Buildings In South Africa

SANS 10400-XA (Energy Usage in Buildings)

The 2021 SANS 10400-XA revision requires the construction of cavity walls in place of 230 mm solid brick external walls. This energy-saving change is applicable in all the energy zones in South Africa except in zones 3, 5 and 5H.

How wise this course of action is considering the lack of skills in the building trade will have to be seen!

What is a cavity wall?

A cavity wall consists of two skins separated by a hollow space (cavity). The advantage is that a cavity wall gives better thermal insulation than a solid wall. The space between the two leaves of cavity walls reduces heat transmission into the building from outside.

The following are the advantages of cavity walls when compared to solid walls.

  • This type of wall gives better thermal insulation than solid walls.
  • The hollow space between leaves prevents moisture penetration through the wall from the outside. This prevents dampness internally.
  • They also act as good sound insulators.
  • These walls also prevent efflorescence from occurring.

Construction of cavity walls

how to build a cavity wall using DPC and brickforce
window built in on a cavity wall with vertical DPC

The construction of these walls is technically more difficult than for solid 230 mm walls.

  • The cavity between the two masonry leaves should be a minimum of 50 mm. The gap must be consistent from the bottom of the wall to the top.
  • Below the DPC level, the bricklayer must fill up the wall cavity with concrete or mortar before installing the DPC.
  • The bricklayer then installs the DPC at slab level to step down from the slab-level interior wall across the cavity to the outer wall and weep holes. Its purpose is to drain away any water in the cavity towards the weep holes to discharge it outside.
  • Weep holes must be provided in the external leaf above the Damp Proof Course (DPC) at every 4th brick horizontally.
  • The bricklayer must build in wall ties at every 5th course of brickwork vertically and space them horizontally at every second brick to tie the two leaves of brickwork together.
  • Mortar dropping down in the cavity can stop water from draining away. The bricklayer should leave some bricks out temporarily at the DPC level to clear mortar droppings at the end of each day’s work.
  • The normal method of preventing mortar droppings from falling to the base of the cavity is to use a cloth-rapped batten (38 x 38 mm) or specially sized 50 x 38 mm planed to 45 mm. The bricklayer places the batten on the wall ties while building the wall. The bricklayer raises the batten, using wire tied to its ends and then positions it on the next row of ties.
  • Furthermore, the bricklayer should install a vertical DPC on the sides of doors and windows when closing off the cavity wall. This is to prevent water from driving to the inner face.
  • In addition, the bricklayer should install a layer of DPC and weep holes in the cavity above exposed doors and windows similar to the DPC at floor level. This is to prevent moisture from penetrating the inner leaf.
  • At the roof line, the bricklayer should fill or brick up the cavity for two or three courses below the roofline to stiffen and distribute the load over both leaves. He should also build in roof ties at this level to tie down the roof trusses or beams.
  • No wide brick force can be used to span both leaves and cavities of brickwork. A 90 mm width of brickforce will need to be used on every 5th layer of brickwork on both leaves up to window or door height and every course above that until the cavity is closed at roof height.

My Concerns with the new requirements

The Western Cape Province has already been following this practice for many years. Cavity walls are also better for damp prevention than solid walls. The introduction of cavity walls nationally is to satisfy regulatory requirements for building energy efficiency.

However, such sweeping changes to the construction of brick buildings in other areas of the country may have serious consequences because of skills shortages. They may lead or may have led to substandard work because of the lack of sufficient skills and training of bricklayers and their supervisors!

The newer generation of bricklayers and builders never adhered fully to the requirements of the building regulations before with the construction of solid 230 mm walls! Most of them have had no experience with building cavity walls either!

I have listed some of the issues I have seen on building sites below:

  • In my experience, the bricklayers in the building trade never used collar jointing of the solid brick walls leading to weakened wall structures.
  • The bricklayers seldom place the DPC on a half layer of mortar on the brickwork. Instead, they place the DPC directly on the brickwork. This often led to moisture intrusion in the structure at the DPC level.
  • Generally, no bricklayer has installed DPC on the sides or above the door and window openings to prevent moisture intrusion through the wall at the windows and doors inland from the coastal areas.
  • Few bricklayers build in the correct number of layers of brickforce reinforcing above windows and doors.
  • Often, the bricklayers tooth the brickwork of the internal walls to external walls and corners instead of stepping back the brickwork as required.
  • The mixing of large amounts of mortar resulting in the retempering (adding additional water) of mortar is a common practice. This causes weakened mortar and brickwork.

Most of the issues result from a lack of knowledge and training. This includes not only the bricklayers but also the supervisors!

So how do we get the bricklayers to build the more technical cavity walls correctly?

  • One way is to train the supervisors who in turn can train the bricklayers!
  • Various brick associations and training schools offer bricklaying training. The various training associations and schools may be open to do on-site training.
  • Both the supervisors and the bricklayers can learn from videos that show how to build cavity walls. They all have cellphones on which they can view the videos.
  • Articles by the Clay Brick Association can update supervisors and bricklayers with the technicalities of building a cavity wall.

Let us hope the above happens so that new homeowners will have properly constructed homes!

Conclusion

With the correct training, newly built cavity walls will provide the thermal benefit required by the new revision of SANS 10400-XA. In addition, the construction of cavity walls will minimise moisture intrusion into new buildings if constructed properly. They also provide sound insulation benefits.

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THE HOME DETECTIVE » Home renovation » Energy efficient

RENOVATION

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Deciding whether to buy or to go for renovation can be a difficult decision. Both have their pros and cons. Both can cost a lot of money and there are many pitfalls to negotiate. You can do it on your own, or you can hire an expert. The decision is yours!

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  2. Be careful what you renovate!
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THE HOME DETECTIVE » Home renovation » Energy efficient

Energy efficiency

energy efficiency

Energy Efficiency In New Homes and Extensions

hot water geysers and energy efficiency
If you are not sure how energy efficient your home is you should have an energy audit inspection. Water heating and solar energy are very much the things to combat load shedding!

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It is a fact that the lack of energy efficiency of normal residential geysers results in the use up to 30% of the electricity in water heating. This and uninsulated homes can result in the use of up to 60% of the electricity used in a home! This has resulted in the move to solar and other reusable energy sources.

Eskom, once regarded as the country’s greatest state asset, has dragged the economy down with its load shedding. Power shortages and load shedding in the last years have galvanised the South African Government to take measures to secure energy efficiency in industrial, commercial and residential facilities. 

The National Climate Change Response White Paper also commits South Africa to make a fair contribution to the global effort to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere within a time frame that is compatible with sustainable development.

To lessen load shedding and reduce the demand for energy usage, the government has introduced energy-saving regulations.

Regulations governing energy efficiency

Energy efficiency is now law! As of 11 November 2011, new buildings and extensions are required to be energy efficient in terms of SANS 10400-XA Energy Usage in Buildings and SANS 204 Energy Efficiency in Buildings.

Energy efficiency focuses on the energy usage of buildings once completed. The following impact on energy efficiency:

  • North orientation
  • window sizes and positions
  • shading
  • thermal and insulation properties of materials used
  • solar heating
  • natural cooling

SANS 10400-XA

The new regulations stipulate planning and design requirements. SANS 10400-XA provides the ‘deemed-to-satisfy’ requirements to comply with the National Building Regulations regarding energy usage.

 SANS 204

This regulation specifies the design requirements for energy efficiency. A building meeting these requirements does not overheat or lose heat excessively. Moreover, the regulation addresses building orientation, correct positioning and size of windows, use of natural light, natural heating in winter, natural cooling in summer and general insulation.

When energy efficiency is part of the design it is cost-effective. There is no need for expensive double glazing for south-facing windows or extra shading for west-facing windows.

Of course, the following is also applicable to existing homeowners who would like to make their homes more energy-efficient!

How can you make your home more energy efficient?

Roof Insulation

The biggest change in the regulation is to the insulation of roofs. Roofs have the biggest impact on energy efficiency. The correct amount of insulation will save 30 – 40% on heating costs.

In Zones 1 to 7, the new requirement is R3.7, with a slightly lower requirement of R2.7 in zone 5H. As an example, a concrete tile roof in Zone 1 will require an additional 3.35 R-value by adding insulation.

This equates to around 135 mm of typical fibreglass blanket insulation (Think Pink Aerolite etc.), higher than previously specified!

Look through the trapdoor in your ceiling. If there is a minimum thickness of insulation, incorrectly placed insulation or none at all, this should be your first step to becoming more energy efficient! Don’t be bluffed by claims of good insulation with reflective tile underlays. They are only effective in reducing the radiant heat in summer and have very little effect in winter when you need insulation the most!

energy efficiency by using solar energy for water heating

Wall Insulation

The 2021 SANS 10400-XA: Energy usage in buildings has a new revision that requires the construction of cavity walls in place of 230 mm solid brick external walls. This energy-saving change is applicable in all the energy zones in South Africa except in zones 3, 5 and 5H.

energy efficiency by using solar energy for water heating

Climatic zone map | Differentiation by climatic zone is an integral part of the regulations

Energy efficiency in hot water heating

50% of all hot water in new houses must now be produced other than by an electrical heating element. Although solar water heating geysers still use some electricity they do fall within this stipulation. Therefore, solar water heating systems or a heat exchange heat pump must supply all hot water.

Solar geysers

Solar panels and geysers use the sun’s radiation to generate heat. The amount of solar energy collected depends on the size of the solar panel. A 3m­² solar panel connected to a 150L geyser produces 150L of 60°C water, on a sunny day.

The hot water produced by the solar panels is usually used up by showers, baths and dishwashing in the evening. As a result, there is no hot water for the morning. In addition, on less sunny days it may only produce 150L at 35°C. Therefore, an electrical element is required for hot water for morning use and less sunny days.

Electrical elements supplement most solar water geysers. However, a properly sized solar water heater still has high energy efficiency producing savings of 50% on water heating bills.

Hot water heat pumps

Domestic hot water heat pumps work differently. The heat pump uses a small amount of electricity to extract a lot of energy from the surrounding air. The heat pump therefore indirectly uses solar energy. In addition, it is also able to produce hot water continuously. A high-efficiency heat pump takes approximately 1½ hours to re-heat a 150L geyser.

The heat pump produces 400% more heating energy than it uses in electrical energy. Therefore, it’s energy efficiency results in a 75% saving on water heating costs. Furthermore, it can be connected to existing geysers!

Energy-efficient Lighting

A light point symbol on floor plans previously indicated light positions. Lighting is now specified in building plans. Furthermore, the specification also considers light levels, energy demand and energy consumption.

Use CLF and LED globes to replace normal light bulbs. CLF bulbs use 65% less energy to produce the same lighting as a normal light bulb. LED lighting consumes 75% less energy. In addition, a CLF bulb lasts  10 times and an LED bulb 25 times longer than a normal light bulb.

The impact of the energy efficiency regulations

Building costs will increase as a result of the new energy efficiency regulations. However, homeowners should recoup these costs and more in the savings generated over time.

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