Biological pollutants are or were living organisms. They promote poor indoor air quality and may be a major cause of illnesses. Furthermore, some can even damage surfaces inside and outside your house. Biological pollutants can travel through the air and are often invisible.
animal dander (minute scales from hair, feathers, or skin);
dust mite and cockroach parts;
infectious agents (bacteria and viruses);
and pollen. Some of these substances are in every home. It is impossible to get rid of them all. Therefore, even a spotless home may permit the growth of biological pollutants.
Two conditions are essential to support biological growth: nutrients and moisture. These conditions can be found in many locations in your home. They are bathrooms, damp or flooded basements, wet appliances (such as humidifiers and air conditioners), and also carpets and furniture.
Furthermore, modern materials and construction techniques may reduce the amount of outside air brought into buildings, which may result in high moisture levels inside. In addition, using humidifiers, unvented heaters, and air conditioners in our homes has increased the chances of moisture forming on interior surfaces.
This encourages the growth of certain biological pollutants.
There is no simple or cheap way to sample the air in your home to determine the level of all biological pollutants. Moreover, experts suggest that sampling for biological pollutants is not a useful problem-solving tool.
Even if you had your home tested, it is almost impossible to know which biological pollutant(s) cause various symptoms or health problems. In addition, the amount of most biological substances required to cause disease is unknown and varies from one person to the next.
You can take several simple, practical actions to help remove sources of biological pollutants, help get rid of pollutants and prevent their return.
Two major factors help create conditions for biological pollutants to grow: nutrients and constant moisture with poor air circulation.
Dust and construction materials, such as wood, ceiling board and insulation, contain nutrients that allow biological pollutants to grow.
Firewood also is a source of moisture, fungi and bugs.
Appliances, such as humidifiers, kerosene and gas heaters, washers and clothes dryers, dishwashers and gas stoves, add moisture to the air.
What You Can Do About Biological Pollutants
Properly cleaning and maintaining your home can help reduce the problem and may avoid interrupting your normal routine. Furthermore, people who have health problems, such as asthma, or who are allergic, may need to do this and more.
Fix leaks and seepage
Use exhaust fans in bathrooms and kitchens
Turn off certain appliances (such as humidifiers and Paraffin heaters) if you notice moisture on windows and other surfaces.
Use dehumidifiers and air conditioners, especially in hot, humid climates, to reduce moisture in the air
Raise the temperature of cold surfaces where moisture condenses.
Open doors between rooms (especially doors to closets which may be colder than the rooms) to increase circulation.
Reducing Exposure to Biological Contaminants
General good housekeeping and maintenance of heating and air-conditioning equipment are very important. In addition, adequate ventilation and good air distribution will also help.
The key to mould control is moisture control. If mould is a problem, clean up the mould and get rid of excess water and moisture. Maintaining the relative humidity between 30% to 60% will help control mould, dust mites and cockroaches.
Indoor air pollution, mould and asthma are a serious issues in many homes!
When it comes to assessing your family’s indoor air environment there are 5 categories of concern to consider! South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs is not concerned with residential indoor air quality! As a result, we need to learn what indoor air quality is from America’s Environmental Protection Agency. They have identified 5 danger levels of indoor pollution. Indoor air pollution is a major human health issue worldwide under normal conditions. However, poor indoor air quality and mould cause asthma attacks that are worsened when you and your family spend most of your time indoors.
Homes with windows and doors closed lack adequate ventilation. In addition, the lack of airbricks increased insulation and better-sealing windows and doors make new homes much more energy-efficient than older houses. As a result, in new homes, it is even more difficult to get fresh clean air into the home.
In our cities, the air we breathe is not clean. Coal plants and factories belch out harmful CO2, trucks and cars spew filthy exhaust fumes. Many families in our cities rely on coal and wood fires for heating and cooking. On the outskirts of the city, cows and other farm animals add methane to the mix. Sometimes just looking out your window at all the pollution may be enough to make you stay indoors.
The degradation ofindoor air quality can be worse than outdoor pollution. Pollutants can build up more in the much smaller closed-up area of your home. They may not be ventilated to the outside.
You may think indoor air pollution does not apply to you. In addition, you don’t live near a highway, farm or industrial plant. You don’t smoke and you don’t use a wood-burning stove. However, the air you breathe may still be polluted.
Some very surprising sources cause indoor air pollution:
Your house itself.
The land on which your house is constructed.
Furthermore, we spend a large portion of our time indoors. Indoor pollution can then becomes a serious concern.
Side effects of air pollution
Some side effects of indoor pollution is maybe a little worse than the common cold. However, pollution can lead to coma, lung cancer and death if you are exposed over a long period. Continue reading “Air Pollution in Your Home”
Biological pollutants can be a problem in your home, causing considerable health problems! They include bacteria, viruses, animal dander, cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches and pollen.
Sources of biological pollutants can be reduced by controlling the humidity level in your home. Therefore, the relative humidity should be kept between 30-50%. Significantly, standing water, water-damaged materials or wet surfaces serve as a breeding ground for moulds, mildews, bacteria and insects. Furthermore, house dust mites, the source of one of the most powerful biological allergens, grow in damp, warm environments.
Biological Pollutants are:
Pollens, from plants.
Viruses are transmitted by people and animals.
Bacteria are carried by people, animals, and soil and plant debris.
Household pets, which are sources of saliva and animal dander (skin flakes)
Droppings and body parts from cockroaches, birds, rodents and other pests or insects.
The protein in urine from rats and mice is a potent allergen. When it dries, it becomes airborne.
Many of these biological contaminants are inhaled.
Locations that facilitate its growth, e.g. moisture, water etc. These include:
Damp or wet areas, e.g. cooling coils, humidifiers, condensate pans or unvented bathrooms facilitate mould growth.
Draperies, bedding, carpet and other areas where dust collects facilitates the growth of biological pollutants.
Health Effects of Biological Pollution
Some trigger allergic reactions, including:
Some types of asthma.
Moulds and mildews release disease-causing toxins. Symptoms include:
shortness of breath,
and digestive problems,
Allergic reactions occur only after repeated exposure to a specific biological allergen. In addition, the reaction may occur immediately on re-exposure. Therefore, if you have mild allergic reactions or no reactions at all, this may suddenly change to highly sensitive to particular allergens.
Humidifier fever is the exposure to toxins from microorganisms that can grow in large building ventilation systems. Furthermore, humidifier fever can also occur in home heating and cooling systems, and humidifiers.
Children, elderly people and people with breathing problems, allergies, and lung disease are particularly susceptible to disease-causing biological agents.
Good housekeeping and maintenance of heating and air conditioning equipment are imperative. Moreover, adequate ventilation and good air distribution are important.
The key to mould control is moisture control. Therefore, if mould is a problem, clean up the mould and get rid of excess water or moisture. In addition, maintain relative humidity between 30% – 60%, to help control mould, dust mites and cockroaches.
Use exhaust fans to vent kitchens and bathrooms. Especially vent clothes dryers outdoors. Consequently, this will reduce moisture build-up from everyday activities.
Ventilate ceiling space to prevent moisture build-up. Keeping humidity levels in these areas below 50% can prevent water condensation on building materials.
If using cool mist or ultrasonic humidifiers, clean appliances according to the manufacturer’s instructions and also refill with fresh water daily. In addition, clean evaporation trays in air conditioners, dehumidifiers and refrigerators frequently.
Thoroughly clean and dry water-damaged carpets and building materials. However, replacement may be preferable. Furthermore, it is difficult to completely rid carpets and building materials of biological pollutants.
Keep the house clean! Obviously, regular cleaning will reduce house dust mites, pollens, animal dander and other allergy-causing agents.
If you are allergic you may choose to use allergen-proof mattress encasements.
Wash bedding in hot (50°C) water and also avoid room furnishings that accumulate dust.
Vacuuming can increase airborne levels of mite allergens and other biological pollutants. Therefore, using vacuums with high-efficiency filters may help.